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How is a leaf adapted for photosynthesis?

The leaf is a plant’s organ that comprises several tissues like the epidermis on the lower and upper side, palisade, and spongy mesophyll that are organized in such a manner that it becomes useful in photosynthesis.

Let us get acquainted with all the essential information concerning the leaf adaptation for photosynthesis.

What are the leaf adaptations for photosynthesis?

Leaves are generally adapted for the photosynthesis process and gaseous exchange. The basic function of the leaf is photosynthesis in order to absorb carbon dioxide and light to produce food in terms of glucose.

Leaf adaptations for photosynthesis include:

  • Chlorophyll presence containing chloroplast
  • Larger surface area for the maximum light absorption
  • Stomata permit the carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf and the oxygen to diffuse out.
  • A thin structure
  • Veins large network to support leaf and transport mineral ions, water, and sugar

Leaf adaptation for photosynthesis

  • The leaf’s surface area is maximized so that it can absorb the maximum sunlight.
  • The thinner structure of the leaf helps reduce the distance so that the CO2 easily diffuses and is useful in such a manner that the sunlight reaches up to the leaf’s middle.
  • Stomata help in water exchange and gas diffusion.
  • Air spaces augment the gas exchange surface area inside the cell.
  • Vein’s presence helps in water, minerals, and other essential transfer.
  • The tubes network to transport food and water.


How is leaf adapted for photosynthesis?

Leaves have a larger surface area, and that is why more light hits them. A leaf’s upper epidermis is generally transparent that allowing the light to enter the leaf.

The palisade cells are composed of several chloroplasts that permit the light to be converted into energy by leaf.

And the leaf has airspaces that allow the better diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaf.

Bottom Line!

We hope this answer gave you a clear idea about the leaf adaptation process for photosynthesis and the other details concerning it.


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Explain why an artery may be described as an organ.

Tissues are referred to as a collection of various types of cells, and the organs are referred to as a collection of tissues that are connected in a structural unit in order to serve a common function.

While talking about the arteries, the arteries are also made up of various types of tissues.

Let us get acquainted with the appropriate explanation behind it.


Why is an artery described as an organ?

An organ is basically a collection of tissues connected in the structural unit to serve a common function. An artery is made up of several tissues; that is why it is described as an organ.

An artery is made up of several tissues types, including

  • Elastic Tissue

Elastic tissue generally evens out the pressure modifications in the vessel when the heart ventricles contract by recoiling and stretching.

  • Smooth Muscles

Smooth muscles are for vasoconstriction.

  • Endothelium lining

Endothelium lining reduces friction.

And the common function of artery tissues is to transport the blood away from the heart.

Additionally, Arteries have a very narrow internal diameter and thick muscular walls that allow them to carry the blood that is at a higher pressure. So, these are described as an organ.


Bottom Line!

As organs are referred to as the collection of tissues connected in a structural unit to serve a common function, particularly the arteries are made up of several types of tissues that is why these are described as an organ.


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What is the difference between diffusion and active transport?

Active transport and diffusion are the two types of methods involved in the movement of the molecules across the cell membrane.  The cell membrane serves as a semi-permeable barrier to the molecules that pass through it.

The primary difference between active transport and diffusion is that active transport needs cellular energy to transport the molecules against the concentration gradient.

In contrast, diffusion refers to the passive transport method where the molecules move across the cell membrane through a concentration gradient.


What is diffusion?

Diffusion is a molecule’s passive movement along with the concentration of a higher one to a lower one. The diffusion methods are further categorized into three, including simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis.


What is active transport?

Active transport refers to the particle’s movement across the cell membrane from lower concentration to higher concentrations using metallic energy.

Active transport gets assistance from the enzymes bound to the metabolic energy and cellular membranes in the form of ATP.

The primary and secondary transports are the further two types of active transport processes.


Similarities between Diffusion and Active Transport

Both active transport and diffusion permit a cell to maintain homeostasis in the cell transporting the molecules across the cell membrane.

Molecular transportation takes place with the transmembrane proteins’ assistance other than diffusion.


Difference between Active Transport and Diffusion

Parameters Active Transport Diffusion
Definition It refers to the particle’s movements across a cellular membrane from a low concentration to a higher one by using metabolic energy. It refers to the molecule’s passive movement along a concentration gradient of higher concentration to lower one.
Concentration gradient It occurs against a concentration gradient It occurs through a concentration gradient
Metabolic energy It requires metabolic energy in ATP’s form for the molecule’s transportation across the cell membrane. It doesn’t require metabolic energy to transport molecules across the cell membrane.
Equilibrium No molecules equilibrium is established here No net molecules movement is observed after the equilibrium establishment on either side of the membrane.
Types of particles Ions, proteins, large cells, and complex sugars are transported through the cell membrane Carbon dioxide, water, sex hormones, small monosaccharides, oxygen, and other smaller hydrophobic molecules are transported through the cell membrane.
Function It allows the molecules transportation like wastes and nutrients against the concentration gradient It maintains a dynamic equilibrium of nutrients, gases, wastes, and water in and out of the cell.
Examples ·        Secretion of a substance into the bloodstream

·        Plants take up nutrients from the soil

·        Potassium or sodium pump

·        Endocytosis

·        Exocytosis

·        Diffusion of molecules from the blood to the cells

·        Oxygen moving from airways

Bottom Line!

Active transport and diffusion are the two molecule transporting methods across the cell membrane.

Diffusion is a passive process, whereas active transport requires the metabolic energy for the molecule’s transportation across the cell membrane. The primary difference between both the terms is their energy requirements for the molecule’s transportation across the cell membrane.


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Describe the process of transcription?

Transcription is the initial step of the gene expression that entails the RNA molecule formation from DNA. Let us get acquainted with everything you need to know about it.


What is transcription?

Transcription refers to the process of copying the information in a DNA strand into a new molecule of messenger RNA.


The transcription process!

The transcription process refers to the transcribing of DNA code into another code type or message. An enzyme known as the RNA polymerase binds to the DNA sequence’s specific part known as a promoter.

Then the DNA must unwind and unzip to expose the DNA’s two strands.

Here one strand contains bases complementary to genes requiring to be transcribed acting as a template through the complementary bases pairing and nucleotides alongside the template strands leading to the formation of a single-stranded mRNA molecule.

Whenever the RNA polymerase identifies that it has reached a stop codon or a terminator sequence referring to the end of the sequence coding, the mRNA detached from DNA.

The DNA then rewinds behind the RNA polymerase because it moves along across the DNA strand.

After that, the mRNA molecule moves out of the nucleus through a nuclear prone into the cytoplasm, ready to be translated into protein at the ribosome’s site.


Transcription Stages

The DNA transcription process is divided into three main stages, including

Stage 1- Initiation

Transcription is a process catalyzed by the RNA polymerase that attaches and moves along the DNA molecule until it identifies the promoter sequence. This DNA’s area marks the starting point of the transcription process.

The transcription factors are the proteins that control the transcription rate and bind to the promoter sequences with RNA polymerase.

Once it gets bound to the promoter sequence, the RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA’s double helix portion while exposing the bases on both the DNA strands.

Stage- 2 Elongation

During the elongation process, one DNA strand is read in the direction of 3’ to 5’ and endows with the template for a new mRNA molecule.

The other DNA strand is considered the coding strand due to its base sequence that is identical to the synthesized mRNA.

RNA polymerase then utilizes the incoming ribonucleotides to generate the new mRNA strand.

And it does this by catalyzing the phosphodiester bonds’ formation between adjacent nucleotides while utilizing the complementary base pairings.

The complementary base pairing means pairing A to U, C to G, G to C, and T to A. The bases can be added to 3 prime ends only, which is why the strand elongates into 3’ direction.

Stage- 3 Termination

The elongation process continues till the RNA polymerase encounters a stop sequence. At this stage, the transcription process stops, and the RNA polymerase liberates the DNA template.


Bottom Line!

DNA transcription refers to the process through which the genetic information contained within the DNA is rewritten into mRNA by RNA polymerase. This rewritten mRNA then exits the nucleus, where it acts as a basis for DNA translation.

We hope that the process mentioned above and the explanation helped you understand the concept well.


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Describe the similarities between photosynthesis and respiration.

Plants, humans and animals, all depend on the cycle of photosynthesis and respiration for survival.

The oxygen produced by the plants during the process of photosynthesis is what animals and humans inhale for the blood to transport to the cells for respiration.

And the CO2 produced during the respiration process is released from humans or animals and absorbed by the plants to facilitate endow with the energy they require for the development. This is the never-ending cycle that generally sustains life on earth.

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the products of a system that are the reactants of the other.


What is photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the process that involves the energy used from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and glucose. Plants use the photosynthesis process to produce energy.


What is Respiration?

Respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce water and carbon dioxide. The process of respiration breaks down the energy for use.

Similarities between Photosynthesis and Respiration

  • Both the processes involve energy production
  • Both the processes involve gases exchange
  • Both the processes take place in the cell organelle that was considered an endosymbiotic organism.
  • Both involve reduction-oxidation reaction and electron transport chain
  • Both the processes synthesize and utilize ATP
  • Both the processes phosphorylation and electron carriers


Similarities explanation

  • Both involve chemical energy production (ATP)

In Photosynthesis, ATP is generated through light energy and utilized to make the organic molecules, whereas, in respiration, ATP is produced by breaking down the organic molecules.

  • Both include ATP production involving an electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.

In photosynthesis, the electrons are donated by the chlorophyll, and protons accumulate within the thylakoid’s lumen, whereas in respiration, electrons are donated by hydrogen carriers. Protons accumulate in the intermembrane space.

  • Both take place in cell organelle.

Photosynthesis occurs in Chloroplast, whereas respiration occurs in mitochondria.


Differences between Photosynthesis and Respiration

Parameters Photosynthesis Respiration
Takes place in It takes place in Algae, plants, and photosynthetic bacteria It takes place in all living organisms.
Function It captures, converts, and stores energy It releases energy
Purpose It converts light energy from the sun that is converted into chemical energy and stored in the glucose bonds Here the chemical energy is stored into the glucose that is released to produce the ATP for cell
Metabolic Process The metabolic process here is anabolic.

Here the energy from ATP NADPH, and CO2 are utilized to produce the glucose molecules.

The metabolic process is catabolic.

Here the glucose is broken down to produce the CO2 and energy in the form of NADH, ATP, and FADH2

Reactants Wate, Light energy and Carbon Dioxide Oxygen and Glucose
Energy source Sunlight Glucose
Location The chloroplast of the plant’s cell Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm while the mitochondria are the site of Krebs cycle, ETC
Electron Carriers NADPH NADPH and FADH2
Products Glucose and Oxygen Water and Carbon Dioxide
Equation 6CO2 + 6H2O –––> C6H12O6 + 6O2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 –––> 6CO2 + 6H2O


Bottom Line!

Both respiration and photosynthesis include the energy conversions from one form to another through the biochemical reaction’s series.

Both the processes utilize and produce ATP in reactions, which are carried out on the membranes and controlled by the enzymes. Both the processes involve reaction cycles, including the redox reactions.


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What is the role of the Nucleus?

The Nucleus is an essential organelle of a cell that acts as a blueprint for how the cells present in the body function. It is responsible for regulating all forms of cellular activities.

Let us get acquainted with the essential information concerning the Nucleus, starting with its definition.

What is Nucleus?

The Nucleus is the most integral component of a cell. It is derived from a Latin word that means “Kernel of a nut.”

It is defined as a double membrane eukaryotic cell organelle, which contains genetic material.


Structure of a Nucleus

The Nucleus is the most evident organelle in a cell that is entirely bound by the membranes. It is the largest organelle that is present in the human body occupying almost 25 percent of the cell volume.

The structure of a nucleus is divided into four main parts. This includes:

  1. The Nuclear envelope

The Nucleus is bound by a double membrane layer which forms the envelope or the capsule.  This envelope’s two layers stay separated from each other by a space often known as the perinuclear space. It generally separates the nucleus’ inner contents from the rest of the cell.

The nuclear envelope’s outer layer is rough due to the ribosome’s presence on its surface. Also, the nuclear membrane has tiny gaps known as the pores that allow the substances’ selective package between the cytoplasm and Nucleus.

Key points of Nuclear envelope

  • It is made up of a membrane phospholipid bilayer having outer and inner membranes.
  • It helps in maintaining the shape of the Nucleus
  • It encloses the nucleoplasm
  • It is connected to the Endoplasmic Reticulum


  1. The Chromatin

The DNA is prearranged in the Nucleus to form chromatin. The chromatin contains the proteins and condenses further to generate the chromosomes. A human cell has a total of 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Key Points of Chromatin

  • The chromatin contains proteins
  • The chromatin condenses to form the chromosomes.


  1. The nucleolus

It’s a well-defined spherical structure that is present within the Nucleus. It is basically the site for the ribosomes’ synthesis and assembly. Here the ribosomes act as protein synthesis sites within the cell.

Key Points of Nucleolus

  • It appears as a darker part of the Nucleus when analyzed with a microscope
  • The Ribosome synthesis takes place here


  1. The nucleoplasm

The nucleoplasm is also known as karyoplasm or nuclear sap. It is a granular, semi-solid substance that comprises several proteins.

The protein fibers generate a crisscross matrix within the Nucleus that helps maintain the structure and the shape of the Nucleus. It is basically the main site for the enzyme activity within the Nucleus.

However, the nucleoplasm appearance may vary during the various phases of a cell cycle.

Along with the proteins, the nucleoplasm also comprises other substances, including RNA, DNA and nucleus.

Key Points of Nucleoplasm

  • Chromatin is the DNA wrapped around proteins
  • It’s a gel-like material that chromatin is stored in


Functions of the Nucleus

The Nucleus performs several essential functions in a cell. The three primary functions of the Nucleus include

  • It comprises the cell’s genetic information in the form of DNA or chromosomes and, therefore, controls cell multiplication and growth.
  • It is also regarded as the site of DNA replication where the formation of an identical copy of DNA occurs.
  • It is responsible for regulating metabolism by synthesizing several enzymes.
  • It is the site for RNA synthesis that acts as a template for the synthesis of several proteins present in the cell.


Bottom Line!

A nucleus is a double membrane organelle consisting of the genetic material and other instructions needed for the cellular process. The Nucleus has two primary functions, including

  • A nucleus is responsible for the hereditary material of a cell.
  • It is also responsible for coordinating several essential activities like cell division, protein synthesis, cell growth, and a host of other vital functions.


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