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What Does AQ Mean In Chemistry?

An aqueous solution is a solution in which water is solvent. It is shown in chemical reactions by appending “aq” to the relevant chemical formula.  

In short, it represents the state of an element or compound. 

For instance, let us take an example of a chemical reaction 

Ba (s) + 2H2O (l) ——– Ba (OH)2(aq) + H2 (g) 

Here it is known that “s” stands for solid, “l” stands for liquid, and “g” stands for gas. But what does the “aq” mean? 

“Aq” refers to aqueous that means “in water.” 

Here if we talk about the chemical reaction, as we have Ba (OH)2 in solution in water.  

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How To Balance Equations Chemistry? 

A chemical equation is a chemical formula that provides the element’s information and molecules that are reacting, and the molecules that are being produced. 

The Law of Conversation of Mass indicates that the reactant’s mass must balance the product’s mass. To balance a chemical equation, the atoms of both elements and molecules on both sides must be equal to each other. 

Let us see how you can balance an unbalanced chemical equation. 

Step 1: Take an unbalanced chemical equation 

Al + O2 ————–> Al2O3 

Here, as per the chemical equation, aluminum reacts with Oxygen to produce Aluminum Oxide.  

Step 2: Make a list 

Rewrite the equation by making a list as shown below 

Al + O2 —————-> Al2O3 

Al:  Al: 

O:  O: 

First, you need to identify the elements on the left side, the reactant side, and the compounds’ elements on the right side, the product side. All you need to do is follow the points: 

  • Make a list of elements on each side under the equation for both the products and reactants, as shown above 
  • Under the reactant side, list Al and O 
  • Under the product side, list Al and O 

Step 3: Identify the atoms in each element 

Al + O2 ——————> Al2O3 

Al: 1  Al: 2 

O:2  O: 3 

An atom is the smallest component of an element that contains the chemical properties of that element. The atom of each element include neutrons, protons, and electrons of that element. The list to be made of each element on both the product and reactant side will help you figure out the number of atoms each element contains. 

Step 4: Multiplying the number of atoms 

Al + O2 ——————> Al2O3 

Al: 1*2=2  Al: 2 

O: 2*3=6  O: 3*2=6 

Here, you need to notice how the number of atoms to each element is different from the next to that same element on the product side. 

To balance the chemical equation, you need to ensure that the atoms’ number of each element on the reactant side is equal to the atoms’ number on the product side. And to make it happen, you need to multiply the number of atoms in each element until both sides are equal. 

Step 5: Place coefficient in front of molecules 

Place the coefficients by performing the following 

2Al + 3O2—————–> 2Al2O3 

Al: 1*2=2  Al: 2 

O: 2*3=6  O: 3*2=6 

After multiplying the number of atoms of each element, until both the sides are equal, you need to put the number, coefficient of how much you multiplied the element and place it in front of it as shown.  

As far as the product side is concerned, both elements did not get multiplied still; place the number multiplied as the coefficient in front of a compound. 

Step 6: Check the equation 

2Al + 3O2 —————> 2Al2O3 

Al: 1*2=2  Al: 2 

O: 2*3=6  O: 3*2=6

2Al + 3O2 —————> 2 Al2O3 

Al: 2  Al: 2 

O: 6  O: 6 

After placing the coefficient in front of molecules, make a list again and check if the subscript’s coefficient gives equal atoms on both sides.  

As seen, it is not equal, so you need to rework the multiplication. Let us see how we can do that. 

Step 7: Balanced Chemical Equation 

4Al + 3O—————> 2Al2O3 

Al: 4  Al: 4 

O: 6  O: 6 

After reworking the multiplication, we can figure out that the equation is balanced now. So, in short, this is your final balanced chemical equation. In the same way, you can try working on some other unbalanced equation. But don’t forget to follow it step by step.    

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What Is A Particle In Chemistry? 

A particle is defined as the microscopic constituents of matter like nuclei of atoms. The term particles can also refer to the small constituents like neutrons, electrons, or protons known as elementary particles. In short, we can say that a particle is a small portion of matter.  

There is no particular size restriction on defining the particle. Particles refer to a quantity of matter which scientists use to construct theories. You must have got a complicated definition that might be hard to understand for you. Let us take an example that can explain it well.  

Please pick up a rock and then smash it with a hammer to break it down into smaller fragments. No, try breaking each fragment into even smaller ones until it results in tiny pieces that cannot be broken down further. Now the resultant you got that is the small unbreakable fragments are the examples of particles.  

Classification and Properties of Particles!

Scientists often think of particles as point-like objects that mean they are considered shapeless for theory purposes. For a long time, it was believed that the atoms are the ultimate particles and that these atoms cannot be divided further. However, continued research on this led to the discovery of subatomic particles.  

The particles are classified as atomic and subatomic particles. An atom can be classified or broken down into three subatomic particles. 

Let us get familiar with subatomic particles 


The neutrons and protons make up the atom’s nucleus and hence are called nucleons. Here are some essentials to know about protons. 

  • Ernest Rutherford discovered the protons. 
  • Protons are positively charged subatomic particles.  
  • The proton’s mass is 1.676 X 10-24 grams 
  • The proton’s charge is +1.602 X 10-19 Coulombs 
  • The number of protons present in an atom is equal to the number of electrons in it. 
  • Protons can be generated through the removal of an electron from a hydrogen atom. 


Electrons revolve around the atom’s nucleus and can be gained by or removed from an atom to form ions. Here are some essentials to know about electrons. 

  • Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles. 
  • An equal number of protons and electrons are found in atoms. 
  • J. Thompson discovered it 
  • The electron’s mass is negligible when compared to the proton’s mass. 
  • The charge of an electron is -1.602 X 10-19 


Neutrons also make up the nucleus along with the protons. Neutrons are referred for their neutral nature and do not carry any charge. Here are essentials to know about neutrons 

  • Neutrons are neutrally charged 
  • James Chadwick discovered it 
  • The neutron’s mass is 1.676 X 10-24 grams 

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What Is A Pure Substance In Chemistry? 

A pure substance is defined as a form of matter with constant composition and constant properties throughout the sample.  

When we talk about a pure substance, we are talking about something that includes only one kind of matter. This can be either one single compound or one single element. And every sample of a pure substance you examine may consist of precisely the same thing with a definite and fixed set of properties.  

Pure substances are classified as compounds and elements 

Compounds are pure substances when two or more elements are combined chemically in a fixed ratio. However, which can be broken down into separate elements by chemical methods. 

An element, on the other hand, is a substance that comprises only one kind of atom. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into a new substance, not even through chemical or physical means.  

For instance, let us take a look at a few pure substances: 

Water (H2O): Element: Consists of water molecules 

Ammonia (NH3): Compound: Consist of ammonia molecules 

Lead (Pb): Element: Consists of lead atoms 

Properties and Characteristics of Pure Substances! 

  • Pure substances are homogeneous in nature, which means containing only one type of molecule or atom. 
  • Pure substances have a uniform or constant composition throughout.  
  • Pure substances have fixed melting and boiling points. 
  • Pure substances participate in the chemical reaction to produce predictable products. 

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What Is Oh In Chemistry? 

OH- is a diatomic anion that has the chemical name Hydroxide. Hydroxide is also known as the Hydroxide ion, or Hydroxyl radical, or Hydroxyl. It is composed of Hydrogen and Oxygen atom that are held together by a covalent bond. 

Hydrogen carries a negative electric charge. It is widely used as a food preservative as an anticoagulant for stored blood and buffer and for alkalization of urine to prevent kidney stones. It acts as a catalyst, a base, a ligand, and a nucleophile. 

In this compound, the two electrons share oxygen bonds with Hydrogen. The Hydroxide is negatively charged as an electron has been absorbed. 

Structure of Hydroxide 

H O- 

Hydroxide Properties 

The ion generates salt where some of them dissociate in an aqueous solution in order to release the solvated hydroxide ions. When Hydroxide and a strongly electropositive center are attached to each other, Hydroxide may ionize itself to release hydrogen cation and make the parent compound an acid. 

HO•, an electrically neutral compound, is hydroxyl radical.  

–OH, a covalently bound group is the hydroxyl group. 

The hydroxyl ion and hydroxyl groups are nucleophiles and function as a catalyst in organic chemistry. 

Uses of Hydroxide 

  • Hydroxide is utilized to produce fuel cells. 
  • It is used to make disinfectants. 
  • It is used as a food preservative to prevent bacteria and mold from growing in food. 
  • It is used in the paper recycling process. 
  • It is used in the extraction of alumina. 

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What Is Displacement In Chemistry? 

A displacement reaction is a reaction where a part of the reactant replaces another reactant. It is also known as the metathesis or replacement reaction. 

The displacement reactions involve metal and a compound of a different metal. Talking about it, in a displacement reaction, “A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its compounds.” 

A displacement reaction is easily seen when the salt of less reactive metal is in the solution. During the reaction, the more reactive metal gradually disappears as it forms a solution, whereas the less reactive metal coats the surface of the more reactive metal. 

There are two types of displacement reactions. 

1. Single Displacement Reaction

 A single displacement reaction is one where one reactant replaces the part of another reactant. In short, it follows the below-mentioned mechanism: 

AB + C  AC + B 


Fe + CuSO4           FeSO4 + Cu 

2. Double Displacement Reaction

Double Displacement reactions are the ones where the anions and cations in the reactants switch their partners to produce the products. It follows the below-mentioned mechanism: 

AB + CD    AD + CB 


AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3 

 For instance, let us consider the two metals, magnesium and copper, as we know that magnesium is more reactive than copper. 

When a piece of magnesium is dipped into a copper sulfate solution, the blue colour lightens due to the formation of colorless magnesium sulfate solution, and the brown copper coats the magnesium surface.  

What is displacement in chemistry


The equation for this can be as follow: 

Magnesium + Copper Sulfate Solution   Magnesium Sulfate + Copper 

Mg   +    CuSO4 MgSO4      +    Cu 

Did you find it relevant? Don’t forget to check on other essential topics of the subjects of your interest. 

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