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What are specialised cells?

A human body is made up of several microscopic cells that work in harmony to form the functioning of a human body. However, some of these cells are complex while others are specialized ones.


What are specialized cells?

Specialised cells are the ones that have developed specific characteristics to execute a particular function.

Specialised cells have a particular role to perform and each cell has a different job. And these specialized cells have special features that permit them to perform these jobs.

For instance, the muscle cells that are held together in the bundles pull altogether to make the muscles contraction.

Let us get acquainted with some examples of specialized cells.


Red Blood cells

RBCs, an acronym for Red Blood Cells carry the oxygen around the body. Its specializations include:

They are appropriate for this function because

  • RBCs contain hemoglobin that carries the oxygen molecules
  • RBCs do not have a nucleus that allows them more space to carry oxygen.
  • RBCs are flat disc-shaped giving them a larger surface area and the best chance to absorb as much oxygen as possible.


Nerve Cells

Nerve cells are also specialised cells that transmit electrical signals. Nerve cells are appropriate for this function because

  • Nerve cells are thin and can be almost 1 meter long which means that they can carry the messages up and down the body over large distances
  • Nerve cells have a fatty sheath that surrounds them and this fatty sheath helps the cells in increasing the speed at which the messages can travel.
  • Nerve cells have some branched connections at each end that connect to the other nerve cells and allow them to pass the messages around the body.


Muscle Cells

Muscle cells bring the body’s parts closer. These are appropriate for this function because

  • Muscle cells are generally held together in the form of bundles that pull together to make the muscles contract.

However, being a broad category the muscle cells include different types of muscle cells that each of them perfectly adapt to its function.

  • Cardiac muscle cells: Cardiac muscle cells are specifically for the heart that is branched and join together to generate a net. These muscle cells contract rhythmically and never get tired.
  • Skeletal muscle cells: Skeletal muscle cells are linked to the bones that contract to make the joints bend and bones move.
  • Smooth muscle cells: Smooth muscle cells generate thin muscle sheets like stomach linings. These can also be arranged in the form of rings or bundles like that in the anus.


Sperm Cells

Sperm cells are the necessary cells for human reproduction. These cells are predominantly made up of a nucleus.

These cells are highly mobile since they are required to move to locate an egg for the fertilization process to occur.

The mitochondria present within the sperm cell endows with the energy that is required by the cells to move at much higher rates of speed.



Leukocyte cells function to keep the body infection-free. These cells are highly flexible and capable of shifting space as required.

Leukocyte cells locate and destroy the microbes within the human body while responding to and treating the infection.

Since these cells must move to the infection site, these are highly capable of pushing through the capillary walls when required to reach the infection’s site.


Bottom Line!

The specialized cells are the ones that are specifically designed to perform the specific functions for which they are intended. We hope that this answer gave you a clear idea about the specialized cells.

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