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What is a dative covalent bond?

Dative covalent bond is a covalent bond that is formed by sharing of electron pair from a single atom. Both the shared electrons are donated by the same single atom. It is also called co-ordinate covalent bond or dipolar bond. Electrons sharing takes place in a specific direction. 

Dative covalent bond is a strong bond as the bonds are identical to any other inter – atomic bonds. 

These bonds are generally formed during reactions which involve two non-metals like a hydrogen atom or during the bond formation between ligands and metals ions. 

The bond is shown in the image is pointing in the direction where an atom is donating the lone pair to the atom that is receiving it. 

Dative Bonds Possess Following Attributes: – 

  1. The atom which shares an electron pair is called the donor (Lewis Base) and the atom which accepts these shared pair of electrons is called the receptor (Lewis Acid). 
  1. The bond is illustrated by an arrow [→] from the donor atom towards the receptor atom. 
  1. Atom gets stability after electron pair sharing. 
  1. Dative covalent bonds have higher melting and boiling points than purely covalent bonds and lower melting and boiling points as compared to ionic compounds, hence, weaker than ionic bonding. 
  1. They are rigid and directional and thus their coordinate compounds exhibit isomerism. 
  1. These are bad conductors of electricity. 

Examples of Dative Covalent Bonds:-

  1. Formation of Hydronium Ion 

An Oxygen atom act as a donor atom and Hact as a receptor. An oxygen atom in water donates its one pair of electrons to the vacant orbital of H+ ion forming a dative bond.  

Formation Of Hydronium Ion
  1. Formation of Ammonium Ion 

Nitrogen atom in Ammonia donates its electron pair to the vacant orbital of H+ ion. Nitrogen acts as a donor and H+ acts as an acceptor forming a dative covalent bond. 

Formation Of Ammonium Ion

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